12 Real Estate Investment computations Every Investor Should Know



Looking for a one- stop shop to all of the introductory real estate investing computations you ’ll ever need? also you ’re in the right place!

The calculation behind real estate investment computations is really enough simple. But occasionally the acronyms and slang can get in the way( NOI, ROI, IRR, GRM … it’s enough to make your head spin)

Do n’t worry, we ’ll cut through all the clutter and simplify all the figures you ’ll need to know. These are the computations I use in my own real estate investing whenever I’m looking to buy, vend, or indeed figure out whether to keep holding a property.


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Table of Contents
12 Real Estate Investing computations You Need to Know

1. Net Operating Income( NOI)

NOI = Operating Income – Operating Charges
Net Operating Income( NOI) is the income left after counting for your operating charges and BEFORE debt service. Net operating income is one of the most important figures you should know, because it’s also used in so numerous other computations( similar as cap rate, debt content portion,etc.)

NOI take into account your gross income, vacancy loss, and operating charges similar as conservation, repairs, levies, insurance, and property operation. principally all charges except for the star and interest on your mortgage payment and capital charges. NOI is what you have left at the end of the day to pay your lender – and thus your lender finds this number extremely intriguing.
Net Operating Income illustration

Let’s say you have a property that rents for$ per month and we assume an 8 vacancy loss($ 120). The property also has the following charges
Repairs/ conservation –$ 150
Property operation( 10) –$ 150
Property levies –$ 200
Insurance –$ 75
Total Charges –$ 575
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So your operating income is$($ – vacancy loss of$ 120), and your operating charges are$ 695. That leaves you with an NOI of$ 805($ –$ 575) per month, or$ per time. Flash back, this does n’t account for your debt payments, but if you enjoy the property free and clear, this is the quantum that would go into your fund.

2. Capitalization Rate( Cap Rate)

Cap Rate = NOI/ Purchase Price

The Capitalization Rate( or “ Cap Rate ” for short) can be used as a simple computation to compare analogous parcels. It basically tells you the rate of return of a property if you bought it for cash. Since debt terms and quantities can frequently vary deal by deal, using the cap rate is a way to exclude debt as a variable and compare the returns on a property as if you were paying all cash.

Cap rates are substantially used in the marketable real estate world, and cap rate data is collected for colorful product types( office, multifamily, artificial,etc.). generally the unsafe the asset, the advanced the cap rate. So if you’re comparing 2 multifamily parcels, one that was erected a many times ago in a hot area of city, and the other that was erected 30 times ago in a Class B or C neighborhood, you would anticipate the ultimate property to have a advanced cap rate.

To understand this, you can look at the equation( Cap Rate = NOI/ Purchase Price). Assuming the 2 parcels have the exact same NOI( net operating income), the lower the purchase price, the advanced the cap rate.

In a vacuum, the cap rate is kindly
of a pointless number. But when you know what cap rates other analogous parcels vended for, you can get an idea for what the request value of a property might be. Cap rates vary by asset type, asset class, terrain, and numerous other variables. For illustration, a Class B multifamily in Cleveland, OH might trade at a 7 cap rate, whereas the same property in San Francisco might vend at a 4 cap rate.

Cap Rate Example

Let’s compare the cap rates of 2 different parcels in the same megacity. Suppose both of these parcels had the same NOI of$ 1M per time. One property is brand new with the rearmost amenities in the stylish part of city. The other property is aged and a little outdated, but in a decent neighborhood.

still, it would have a cap rate of$ 1M/$ 25M = 4, If the brand new property with fancy amenities is priced at$ 25M.

And if the aged property had a request value of$ 16M, it would have a cap rate of6.25.

This illustration shows that a advanced cap rate denotes a lower deals price for the same quantum of income, grounded on advisability and threat of the property.

3. Rent to Cost rate

Rent to Cost rate = Monthly Rent/ Total Property Cost

The Rent to Cost rate is another quick way to compare analogous parcels to each other. I use this all the time as a quick check to screen out parcels I’m considering buying, before I do a deeper dive into the financials.

This criteria gives you the yearly rent as a chance of total property cost( purchase price plus any repairs demanded to get it rent-ready). This is the rate that’s used for the popular 1 rule, which states that( in general) the rent to bring rate should be at least 1 in order to cash inflow as a rental property.

I’ve an entire composition on the 1 rule and how to apply it. I suppose this is one of the most important generalities to learn as a new investor.

Rent to Cost rate Example

Consider a property you’re allowing of buying for$ that needs$ of work to get it ready to rent out at$ per month. The rent to bring rate would be

Monthly Rent/ Total Property Cost = $/($$) = 1.15

Grounded on the 1 rule, this is likely a good cash- flowing property( since the rate is lesser than 1). You would want to do a deeper dive on the factual operating charges and recovery costs demanded, but the rent to bring rate provides a quick and easy number to compare to other implicit reimbursement parcels.

real estate investing computations you need to know

4. Gross Reimbursement Multiplier( GRM)

GRM = Total Property Cost/ Gross Annual Rent

The Gross Rent Multiplier( GRM) is another way of looking at the rent to bring rate, and principally gives you the same information in a different format( an annualized number that’s the antipode of rent to cost). I find the Rent to Cost rate to be more intuitive, but frequently times an announcement might list the GRM and not the rent to bring rate, so you want to be familiar with what it means.

The GRM is the total property cost( purchase price plus repairs demanded) divided by the anticipated gross periodic rents.

GRM Example

Let’s use the same property as our illustration for Rent to Cost rate($ purchase price,$ in repairs to make rent-ready, and anticipated yearly rent of$). The computation would be

GRM = Total Property Cost/ Annual Rent = ($$)/($ * 12) = 7.2

This shows that the total property costs are7.2 X the periodic rents. And since we used the same figures as our former illustration, a Rent to Cost rate of1.15 is original to a GRM of7.2.

Note that if you’re following the 1 rule as a quick screen, also that would be original to a GRM of8.33. With GRM, lower is better. So if you’re using GRM to screen out parcels that do n’t meet the 1 rule, you ’d want to only look at parcels that had a GRM of8.33 and below.

5. Debt Service Coverage rate( DSCR)

DSCR = Net Operating Income/ Debt Service

The Debt Service Coverage rate( DSCR), or occasionally appertained to as Debt Coverage rate( DCR) is a metric numerous lenders use to determine whether a property has enough income to cover the loan. DSCR is calculated by taking our friend, Net Operating Income( NOI) and dividing by the debt service( star plus interest).

utmost lenders want to see a DSCR of at least1.2, which means that the property is generating enough to pay the debt plus an fresh bumper of 20. They also want to make sure your cash reserves( liquid net worth) can comfortably cover charges for several months.

DSCR illustration

still, in NOI monthly, and your payments to the lender are$ 80, If you enjoy a multifamily property that generates$ 100.
NOI/ Debt Service = $/$ = 1.25

This means that you’re generating 25 further cash inflow than it costs to pay the loan. This bumper helps cover the lender should effects go south( advanced vacancy, lower rents,etc.), and is also the quantum that goes in your fund as the proprietor after paying the lender.

return on equity investing

6. Break- Indeed rate

Break- Indeed rate = ( Operating Charges Debt Service)/ Gross Income

The Break- Indeed rate is another way to look at how a property is performing in relation to the debt payments. It’s analogous to the DSCR, but answers a slightly different question – what chance of the gross income do your aggregate charges regard for? This standard can be used to fluently see how important gross income can fall and still stay cash inflow positive.

Break- Indeed rate Example

Consider the same multifamily property in the DSCR illustration over. This time, we need the Operating Charges( not to be confused with NOI) and Gross Incomenumbers.However, and Operating Charges are$ 100, 000, If Gross Income is$ 200.
Operating Charges Debt Service)/ Gross Income = ($$)/$ = 0.9 or 90

This says that the aggregate charges quantum to 90 of the gross income. So if, for illustration, you had a 10 vacancy rate and your gross income dropped, you would be at the Break- Indeed rate( zero cash inflow). This might be a borderline deal, because in a downturn, you could fluently hit 10 vacancy or indeed advanced, and not be suitable to make your debt payments.

7. Cash on Cash Return

Cash on Cash Return = Cash Flow Before levies/ Cash Invested

The Cash on Cash Return is another metric I watch nearly for my own reimbursement parcels. It gives you your periodic cash return as a chance of your total cash invested.

I like to make sure that any property I buy will give me at least a 10 cash on cash return after counting for all charges. This bone
is easiest to explain with an illustration.

Cash on Cash Return Example

Suppose you’re assaying a new single family reimbursement house to add to your portfolio. You can calculate your total cash inflow( before levies) by taking your NOI and abating debt service.

Let’s say the property is for trade for$, and my anticipated NOI is$ per time. I also want to get a loan for 70 of the purchase price( putting down$). still, per time, then’s the computation of cash on cash return
If the debt service is$ 10.
Cash Flow Before levies/ Cash Invested = ( NOI – Debt Service)/ Cash Invested = ($ –$)/$ = 11.1

That means that your factual cash return( what goes into your bank account) is11.1 of your original investment per time. Another way of looking at it, is it’ll take 9 times to make back 100 of your original investment( 100/11.1).

While there are a lot of other benefits to retaining real estate( similar as appreciation, favorable duty treatment, and mortgage paydown), making sure you’re cash inflow positive is one of the most important effects you can do to cover yourself in a downturn. That way, indeed if rents go down or vacancy goes up, you have some bumper to cover you and you wo n’t be taking cash out of your own fund to pay the bills for your investment.

8. Price Per Square Foot( PSF)

Price Per Forecourt bottom = ( Deals Price or Rent Price)/ Total Square Footage

Price Per Forecourt bottom is another easy metric to compare analogous parcels, whether you’re looking at the purchase price or rents they induce. It’s a simple computation to understand – just take the trade price( or rent price) and peak by the square footage of the property.

still, a good reimbursement generally sells for$ 100 per square bottom, you can compare that to the asking price of a property to determine if it’s worth a farther look, If you know that in your area.

also, you can use this metric to get a rent price per square bottom and compare it to other parcels.

PSF Example

Let’s say you’re looking at 2 analogous parcels. One is a square bottom house that rents for$ per month and is for trade for$. The other is a square bottom house that rents for$ per month and is for trade for$.

Both have a deals price per square bottom of$ 100($/ sf and$/ sf). But the lower house has a rent price per square bottom of$ 1($ sf/$), and the larger house has is$0.87/ sf($/ sf). All differently being equal, the property that rents for further per square bottom would give further cash inflow as a chance of the quantum you have invested.

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9. 50 Rule

Total Charges = 50 x Gross Income

The 50 Rule is n’t so much a metric as a general rule of thumb. Like the 1 rule, it’s an approximation that’s useful for quick and dirty analysis before you spend too important time digging into the detailed financials.

The 50 rule says that, in general, you can anticipate the aggregate charges of a property( not including debt service) to equal 50 of your gross income.

50 Rule illustration

However,, you can anticipate to pay about$ 750( 50 of$ 1, If you have a house that rents for$ 1. That leaves you$ 750 to pay the star and interest on the loan, and any cash left over is your profit.

I’ll stress again that this is a rule of thumb for snappily comparing analogous parcels. Once you ’ve narrowed it down to a specific property, make sure you plug in your real rental property account figures for all your charges( i.e. look up factual levies from the appraisal quarter, get an insurance quotation,etc.) But I’ll say that in my experience it tends to be enough accurate overall, plus or minus 5- 10.

10. 70 Rule

Max Purchase Price = 70 of After Repaired Value – Rehab

The 70 Rule is another rule of thumb, specifically for investors looking to flip houses. It says that the maximum quantum you should pay for a house is 70 of the later repaired value( ARV) minus the recovery costs. That 30 should cover all of your costs( buying and selling costs, backing costs, holding costs,etc.) and still give you room for profit.

In my experience, actually chancing houses that meet the 70 rule is extremely delicate given the hot real estate request we live in moment. commodity closer to the 80 rule is more realizable. It all comes down to your own figures and real costs whether you can make a profit at 70, 80, or indeed 85. For my own settlements, I like to buy houses that need a lot of work and thus get a reduction for taking on the threat and redundant work. I aim to buy them at a 20 reduction( so the 80 Rule), though in some cases I’ll go higher.

70 Rule illustration

Then’s a real illustration of a property I bought as a reimbursement. It demanded A TON of work, and I thus got a great deal. I paid$ for it and ended up putting in about$ in recovery. It demanded everything – new roof, HVAC, flooring, bathrooms, kitchen, foundation work, etc. Once the recovery was complete, I refinanced into a conventional loan, and it rated for$. I was suitable to get a loan for 70 of rated value($). Since I was each in to the property for$($$), I was suitable to walk about with$ in my fund and a cash- flowing rental property!

Per the 70 Rule, I should have paid 70 x$ –$ = $. So I was really close to that number. All by each, I was suitable to add a rental property to my portfolio AND increase my net worth by$($ rated value –$ purchase and recovery). Not a bad deal!

farther READING How to Invest in Real Estate With No plutocrat( Is it Possible?)

11. Return on Equity( ROE)

ROE = Annual Return/ Total Equity

Return on Equity( ROE) is a measure of the total return of your real estate investment( not just cash inflow) divided by your total equity( how important you would put in your fund if you vended moment).

I measure my parcels by this metric every time and make a determination on whether to continue to hold them or look for an occasion to vend and emplace my cashelsewhere.However, it might be time to find a new investment, If they are n’t pulling their weight( giving me my asked return on equity).

One benefit of ROE is that you can compare the total return you ’re getting on your rental propertyvs. the stock request or some other investment. When we say that the S&P 500 returned 7, you’re basically saying that the underpinning equity( value of shares in the S&P 500) went up by 7. still, it might make sense to reevaluate why you’re investing in that property rather of commodity fully unresistant like the stock request( diversification away), If you run the figures on your rental property and discover your ROE is 3.

While the formula is deceptively simple, there are a lot of inputs that go into calculating ROE.

The periodic return consists of the following factors

cash inflow
mortgage top paydown
In addition, your total equity is the current value of the property minus any outstanding mortgage balance.

So to translate, ROE = ( Annual Cash Flow Appreciation star Paydown)/( request Value – Mortgage Balance).

ROE Example

Let’s say I’ve a$ property I bought last time with a$. My periodic cash inflow last time was$, and it appreciated by 4($). In addition, the top balance was reduced by$ thanks to paying the mortgage every month.

So when I bought the property, I had$ in equity($ purchase price –$ mortgage). And I had a total return of$($ cash inflow$ appreciation$ star paydown).

That gives me a total ROE of$/$ = 27

Compared to the stock request( or any other investment) that’s a enough great return! What gets intriguing is that the longer you hold the property, the further your equity increases, and thus your ROE tends to go down over time. There are strategies to boost this, similar as doing a cash out refinance on the mortgage, but occasionally if a property appreciates a significant quantum but rents do n’t increase at the same rate, it can beget your ROE to decline to the point where it may be wise to look at selling and investing nearly differently.

farther READING Return on Equity The Secret to Real Estate Investing Success

return on equity greeting 1 e1563833227468- 12 Real Estate Investment computations Every Investor Should Know

12. Internal Rate of Return( IRR)

I’m not indeed going to essay to put the formula for IRR then. While the conception is fairly simple, the calculation behind it’s not. There are plenitude of tools out there that will calculate IRR for you, including my old fave, Excel.

The Internal Rate of Return( IRR) principally evaluates the periodic return of an investment, using a series of projected cash overflows. For an investment property, you might have an original negative cash inflow for a down payment, also small positive periodic cash overflows while it’s rented out, also a large positive cash inflow when it’s vended.

The IRR takes these cash overflows and calculates the periodic yield of the entire design from launch to finish. It’s veritably useful to compare multiple different systems. Generally you would want to pursue the one with the loftiest IRR.

I find IRR most useful when I’m comparing crowdfunded real estate systems to one another. With crowdfunding, you’re a unresistant player in the real estate game and what you really watch about are the projected returns you’ll be getting over the life of the design.

Side Note If you want to learn further about unresistant real estate crowdfunding, a many of my pets for newcomers are Fundrise and DiversyFund. You only need$ 500 to get started, and it lets you invest in a diversified portfolio of marketable real estate. I ’ve set up it’s an easy way to dip your toe in the shaft investing waters, and learn as you go.

IRR illustration

still,, it returned$ 3, If you bought a rental property with an original down payment of$ 30. You have a series of periodic cash flows

Year 0 = -$
Time 1 = $
Time 2 = $
Year 3 = $
Time 4 = $
Year 5 = $
Total IRR = 22( using Excel IRR() function)
Real Estate Investment computations – belting Up
While there are a ton of other computations you could learn in real estate investing, these are some of the stylish, especially for someone looking to get started in real estate investing. I use these 12 real estate investment computations in my own investing, and they’ve served me well.

It’s important to realize that figures can frequently be manipulated to show whatever you( or the dealer) wants to show. So while the results these computations produce are important, it’s indeed more important to understand the underpinning hypotheticals and what they mean.

Hopefully this composition has helped you gain a better understanding of how to calculate some of the introductory criteria you need to compare prospective reimbursement parcels and other real estate investments, and put you on your way toward success as a real estate investor!